An electric motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is used to generate torque to lift loads, move objects, and various other mechanical tasks. This article focuses on the classification of electric motors.
As we all know, motors are mainly divided into AC motors, DC motors, and special motors.
AC motor types are divided into synchronous motors and asynchronous (induction) motors. AC motors convert alternating current (AC) electrical energy into mechanical energy. These motors are powered by either single-phase or three-phase alternating current. The basic working principle of an AC motor is that when alternating current passes through the stator winding, the stator winding generates a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The rotor (which has its own magnetic field) follows the RMF and starts spinning.
In this type of motor, the speed remains constant as the load changes, and the supply current frequency is synchronized with the rotor rotation. That is why this type of motor helps in driving the motor at a constant speed and is used in machines.
②Asynchronous (induction) motor
The working principle of this motor is that the magnetic field on the rotor generates electromagnetic induction. According to the load capacity, it is divided into two types:
■ Single phase
■ Three phases
Single-phase induction motors are used for smaller loads such as household appliances, and three-phase induction motors are used for industrial applications such as conveyor belts and lifting gear.
DC motor types are divided into brushed motors and brushless motors. DC motors operate on direct current or direct current. DC electricity has no phases, that's why DC motors only use 2 wires to run. They were the first electric motors invented. Its speed can be more easily controlled just by changing the supply voltage. It provides simple start, stop, acceleration and reverse mechanisms. DC motors are very cheap to install, but they do require maintenance, the cost of which increases significantly with motor size and power.
① Brush motor: A brush motor is a traditional DC motor and is used for basic applications with very simple control systems. These are used in consumer applications and basic industrial applications. These are divided into four types:
■ Series winding
■ Parallel winding
■ Compound winding
■ Permanent magnet
② Brushless motors: Brushless motors have a simple design, long service life, require less maintenance, and are highly efficient. Brushless motors are often used in equipment that uses speed and position control, such as fans, compressors, and pumps.
Special motors refer to improved versions of other motors designed for special purposes. The special motors introduced in this article mainly include servo motors, direct drive motors, linear motors, stepper motors, and universal motors.
A servo motor is a special type of motor used to push/pull lift or rotate objects at a specific angle. Servo motors can be designed to operate on both AC and DC power supplies. Servo motors that run on DC power are called DC servo motors, and servo motors that run on AC power are called AC servo motors. It's a simple motor with a controller and multiple gears to increase its torque.
②Direct drive motor
Direct drive motors, also known as torque motors, produce high torque at low speeds even when stalled. The payload is connected directly to the rotor, eliminating the use of gearboxes, belts, reducers, etc. It is a brushless permanent magnet synchronous motor without a commutator and brushes. Reliable and long service life due to no mechanical wear. The fact that it has fewer mechanical parts means it requires less maintenance and costs less.
Linear motors have an unfolded stator and rotor that provide linear rather than rotational force. If you slice any motor and lay it flat on a surface, you'll end up with a linear motor. Linear motors are used in robotics, medical equipment, and factory automation, among others. Linear motors are used in robotics, medical equipment, and factory automation, among others.
A stepper motor is a brushless DC motor whose complete rotation is divided into many equal steps. This type of motor rotates in steps (fixed angles), rather than continuously. This stepping motion provides the high precision exploited by robotics.
Stepper motors are used in industrial machines, CNC-based machines that automatically manufacture products due to their precise positioning. It also finds applications in medical devices and machinery, as well as in security cameras. Steppers are widely used in electronics and other intelligent electronic systems.
A universal motor is a special type of motor that can operate on either AC or DC power. It is a brushed series wound motor in which the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding. They provide maximum starting torque and high operating speeds.
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