New energy vehicle drive motor is one of the three core components of new energy vehicles, compared with the traditional industrial motor, new energy vehicle drive motor has higher technical requirements. Here we introduce the development status of new energy vehicle drive motors at home and abroad.
I. Types of drive motors for new energy vehicles
To understand the new energy automobile drive motor development status, first of all, we need to know the common types of new energy drive motors that need to be supplied.
There are three main types of drive motors for new energy vehicles: permanent magnet synchronous motors, AC asynchronous motors, and switched reluctance motors.
A permanent magnet synchronous motor is the first choice of drive motor for new energy vehicles due to its high power density and torque density; AC asynchronous motor is mainly used as the drive motor for new energy commercial vehicles, especially for new energy buses; switched reluctance motor is less used in practical assembly due to its complex control system structure.
From the overall comprehensive performance point of view, a permanent magnet synchronous motor has the most advantages, and better represents the development direction of a new energy vehicle drive motor.
Ⅱ.domestic and foreign new energy vehicles drive the motor development supply situation
Here the main domestic and foreign new energy vehicle drive motor development and supply situation is introduced separately, briefly describing the characteristics of the two.
1, foreign automobile drive motor host plant tends to the system of direct supply or joint development.
In foreign countries, automotive drive motor independent manufacturers are more well-known Siemens, Remy, Hitachi, Continental, Bosch and so on.
However, most foreign new energy vehicle OEMs have internal supporting drive motors, such as BMW, Volkswagen, Toyota, and Nissan. In addition to this, it is common for OEMs and parts suppliers to participate in joint development, for example, Daimler and Bosch set up a joint venture, and Ford and Magna jointly developed the drive motor system.
2, the domestic new energy vehicle drive motors are in a booming stage of development, blossoming.
In the country, there are about 30 new energy drive motor manufacturers, can for the vehicle enterprise batch supply only about 15. Vehicle manufacturers, BYD new energy vehicle drive motors are independent supporting; independent motor or auto parts manufacturers, the overall strength of the stronger Beijing Jingjin, Shanghai Electric Drive, Dayang Electric, etc., of which Shanghai Electric Drive (acquired by Dayang Electric in June 2015) is the new energy passenger car drive motors of the leading enterprises, the CSR Times Electric is the new energy commercial vehicle drive motors of the leading enterprises.
The three types of drive motors mentioned in the first part have their advantages and disadvantages. Because permanent magnet synchronous motors (PM synchronous motors) have the advantages of high efficiency, wide high-efficiency zone, high torque density, small motor size, lightweight, wide speed range, etc., international manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda, as well as domestic manufacturers such as FAW, Dongfeng, Chang'an, and Chery, etc., have adopted PM motors in their new-energy vehicles. Because of the limitations of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (motor structure, especially the rotor structure is very complex), automobile manufacturers will also use AC asynchronous motor program. The advantages of AC asynchronous motors are lower cost, relatively simpler structure, and relatively mature control technology. However, AC asynchronous motors have a narrower high-efficiency zone, and under the same performance parameters, asynchronous motors are larger in size and heavier in weight, and these drawbacks have to a certain extent restricted their wide application. Switched reluctance motor is very mature from the motor itself and control, the motor structure is simple and reliable, and low system cost is its main advantage. However, because switched reluctance motors have disadvantages such as large torque fluctuations, high noise, and nonlinear characteristics of the system, their application is still limited at present.
Since the implementation of the national 863 major special projects on electric vehicles, after more than a decade of development, the development of drive motors in the R & D has made great progress in the basic functions and performance close to or at the international level, but the slow progress of industrialization, for many reasons, there is a market demand, there is a national promotion, there are enterprises themselves in terms of production conditions. However, China is the motor manufacturing and application of large countries, there is a better industrial base, there is a wealth of rare earth resources, and there are national policies to vigorously support the development of the motor industry, which provides a perfect environment.
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